- •Aromatherapy is an alternative medicine or integrative therapy that works with conventional medicine treatment.
- •The Food and Drug Administration of the United States guidelines classify essential oils as cosmetics because they are not drugs for treating or prevention of disease.
- •Essential oils come from seeds, stems, leaves, needles, petals, flowers, rinds and fruits, woods and resins, roots and rhizomes, and grasses.
- •Case reports are presented for considerations regarding flammability, elder and child safety, dermatitis, phototoxicity, oral toxicity, and eye safety, including critical analysis and intervention.
- •Clinical aromatherapy can be beneficial for symptom management for pain, nausea, vomiting, preoperative anxiety, critical care, well-being, anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia, respiratory, dementia, and oncology.
- Swamy M.K.
- Akgtar M.S.
- Sinniah U.R.
Worldwide historical evolution of aromatherapy
|Egyptian culture||Resins, balms, and fragrant oils|
Papyrus Ebers wrote a famous manuscript about aromatic medicine.
This is believed to be around 2800 bc.
|Iraq||A skeleton was found 30,000 years ago with concentration of extracted plant essential oils.|
|India||The Ayurveda natural system of medicine was based on disease due to an imbalance of stress in a person’s consciousness.|
Need to regain balance by internal purifications followed by special diet, herbal remedies, massage therapy, yoga, and meditation
|China||Shen Nung’s manuscript listed 350 plants in 2800 bc.|
Ayurvedic physicians are called holy men.
Indian shamans are known as perfumeros, from scents of plants.
Chinese culture still embraces herbal medicine.
Traditional Chinese medicine
Based on harmony energy of yin-yang
Opposites balance is key to health.
Imbalance have illness
Acupuncture, cupping, herbal teas, powders from plants, meditation, and herbal burning near skin
|Greece||Theophrastus inherited the botanic garden from Aristotle. He wrote a book about specific uses and formulas for aromatics.|
Kyphi formula contained 16 plants and was used for sleep and anxiety, to soothe skin, and as an antidote for snake bite. He became the father of botany.
Hippocrates wrote about aromatic baths and antibacterial properties and urged people to carry aromatic plants for protection.
Pedanius Dioscorides wrote De Materia Medica covering 700 plants, including aromatics.
Pre-Christian era emerged with the belief that essential oils were pagan. In response, Pope Gregory the Great passed a law banning all aromatics. Works of Galen and Hippocrates were smuggled to Syria for safekeeping.
|Arabia||Ibn Sina, an Arabic physician, used aromatics, such as senna, camphor, and cloves, for medical treatment.|
Inhaled henbane was used as anesthetic. Topical sugar was used to stop bleeding.
Rose or orange blossom was used as flavor to medicine. This led to the manufacturing of medicine.
Medical aromatherapy emerged in the third century.
The first private apothecary shop opened in Baghdad. with dispensing medicines. such as tinctures, suppositories, inhalants, and pills.
|German||Hieronymus Braunschweig a surgeon and botanist, wrote a book on distillation of oils from plants that included 25 oils|
|France||In 1919, Gattefossé, a famous chemist, was burned in an explosion in his laboratory. The wounds became infected. Wound rinsing with essential oils eradicated the infection. He coined the term, aromatherapy, and was known for the medical use of essential oils with their antibacterial and healing properties of essential oils.|
Jean Valnet, an army physician, wrote the first aromatherapy book by a doctor.
Shirley Price authored Aromatherapy for Healthcare Professionals. She is known for clinical use of essential oils.
In 1961, Marguerite Maury, a nurse, published Le Capital “Jeunesse”. This book classified clinical departments’ use of essential oils, such as surgery and spa treatment. Maury won 2 international awards for her research.
Nursing theorists support for health care aromatherapy
|Theorist Name||Application to Clinical Practice|
|Cleanliness, rest, and relaxation properties|
|Myra Estrin Levine|
|Transformation process preventing stress|
|Supports interpersonal relations; promotes personal growth|
Unitary human beings and their environment are one
|Interrelationship between people and plants|
|Sister Callista Roy|
|Assist coping and adaptation|
|Wanda de Aguilar Horta|
Basic human needs
|Restore balance, thereby decreasing depression and stress|
|Promote holistic patient comfort|
|Holistic harmony caring interactive healing relationship such as massage and talk|
Regulation guidelines for essential oils
- 1.Aromatherapy waterless vaporizers and diffusers were recalled due to a defective heater causing a fire multiple times with consumers. The CPSC had the authority to cease the sale of the products and refund consumers.
- 2.The FDA protects consumers from false claims and mislabeled products that mislead the public. Surveillance found Quinessence Aromatherapy Ltd posted on their website advertisement that essential oils protect against and cure coronavirus disease-2019. (COVID-19). This false statement triggered a FDA letter warning to the owner to take the information off their website within 48 hours and cease the sale of essential oil for prevention and cure of COVID-19. These 48 hours included developing a plan to be approved by the COVID-19 Task Force. The company was located in Europe with essential oils sold in the United States. The owner ignored the warning. Due to the fraudulent statement describing essential oils as a curing drug for COVID -19, a second joint letter was sent to the owner by the FDA, CPSC, the secretary of Health and Human Services, and the U.S. Public Health Services ordered the owner of the company to immediately take down the website and cease the sell of essential oils as a curing drug. The company's website was also put on the federal surveillance website list.
Nurse awareness of essential oils plant sources and uses
- 1.Cardamom (Ellettaria cardamomum)—the essential oil is from the plant family Zingiberaceae. Uses for this seed oil include an antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, digestive stimulant, expectorant, parasympathetic nervous system stimulant, and stimulant, tonic.
- 2.Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is from the plant family Piperaceae. Uses for this oil include an analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, digestive, and circulatory tonic; reducing fever reducing pain; as a rubefacient; and for stimulating.
- 3.Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce) is from the plant family Apiaceae. Uses for this oil include an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, detoxifier, and digestive and for relieving gas.13
Stems, Leaves, and Needles
- 1.Cistus (Cistus ladanifer) is from the plant family Cistaceae. This essential oil comes from stems, twigs, dried leaves, and dried flowers. Uses for this oil include as a cictrisant or for cell regeneration; as an antibacterial, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, astringent, and antiviral agent; as an immunity booster and regulator; as a tonic and support for parasympathetic and central nervous systems; and for wound healing.
- 2.Eucalyptus is a tree from the plant family Myrtaceae. It also is referred to by many names, such eucalyptus oil, blue gum oil, blue mallee oil, and gully gum oil. The leaves and twigs are used for burns, wounds, nasal congestion, lowering blood glucose, nasal congestion, and asthma and as a tick repellent. It also is used in medications and supplements.
- 3.Laurel (Laurus nobilis) is from the plant family Lauraceae. This aromatic evergreen scrub is known for its aromatic dark green, glossy leaves. Dried and fresh leaves oil is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, and antiviral; for boosting the immune system and calming the nervous system; and as an expectorant and fungicide.
- 4.Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) comes from the plant family Lamiaceae that is commonly called the mint or dead needle busy herb. Oil from leaves are used as an antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, deodorant, and digestive; for relieving gas soothing the nervous system; and as a stimulant and tonic.
- 5.Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L) comes from the plant family Lamiacae in the mint family. Peppermint essential oil is a common flavoring agent in pharmaceuticals, soaps, cosmetics, food, and beverages. This essential is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, decongestive, digestive, and expectorant and relieves coughs.
- 6.Pine (Pinus sylvestris)—pinus edulis is from the plant family Lamiaceae and from the mint family. Pine essential oil is derived from the needles on the pine tree. The scent is known for the uplifting and positive impact on the mood. It is known for treatment of postsurgery nausea and vomiting. Essential pine oil is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antibiotic, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antimicrobial agent; assisting in opening lungs and air pathways; as an expectorant; and for soothing nerves.
- 7.Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is from the plant family Lamiaceae. This aromatic evergreen shrub’s essential oil is derived from leaves, flowers, and stems. This essential oil is known for folk medicine, flavoring food, and herbal tea. Rosemary has been known as a sacred oil. Uses for this essential oil are as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antiseptic, and antispasmodic agent; for breaking up mucus; as a cognitive stimulant, decongestant, expectorant, muscle relaxant (cineole), stimulant, and tonic; and for wound healing (verbenone).14
Petal and Flowers
- 1.Clary sage (Salivia sclarea) is an herbaceous perennial in the plant family Lamiaceae with a history of petal and flowers used as an herb. The essential oil of clary sage is used in perfumes and muscatel flavoring in wines and liqueur. This essential oil is used as an antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac and for calming the nervous system, relaxing the uterus, and stimulating the blood flow.
- 2.Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla [Anthemis nobilis]) is in the plant family Asteraceae and is a common name for several daisy-like flowers. Chamomile essential oil from flowers is used in herbal tea and is a popular night herbal tea due to the sedative affect. This essential oil is used for support for the nervous system, inflammation, insomnia, menstrual issues, headaches, and skin concerns.
- 3.Geranium (Pelargonium x asperum) and rose (Pelargonium graveolent)—this essential oil comes from the plant family Geraniaceae. This perennial plant has a sweet floral scent with uses in high-end perfumes and skin products with essentials oils resulting in young radiant skin. Essential oil from the flowers are used for reducing anxiety, as a sedative, for stimulating relaxation, as aids in symptoms from menstruation, as an anti-inflammatory, and for supporting healthy lymph drainage.
- 4.Jasmine (Jasminum sambac; Jasminum grandiflorum)—this essential oil is from the plant family Oleaceae. Jasmine is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family. Flowers of this bushy strong-scented perennial plant are used for scent and in tea as a base for green and white teas. As an essential oil, jasmine is used as an antidepressant and aphrodisiac, for calming the nervous system, and as a sexual tonic and stimulant.
- 5.Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) —this essential oil is in the plant family of Lamiaceae and is a bushy strong-scented perennial plant. Lavender is a popular house décor and frequently used with dried flowers as a complement in weddings. The popular scent is used in balms, salves, and cosmetics. As an essential oil, lavender is used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antispasmodic; for calming the nervous system, lowering blood pressure, and reducing anxiety and sensations of pain; as a sedative; and for wound healing.
- 6.Neroli (Citrus aurantium var. amara)—this essential oil is in the plant family Rutaceae and is from the bitter orange tree. This essential oil from flowers has a rich floral scent and is known as orange blossom oil. Neroli is used in scented products, such as perfumes and lotions. This essential oil is used as an antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac; for calming; and as a digestive, nervous system stimulant, sedative, and tonic.
- 7.Rose (Rosa damascena; R damascena var. alba)—this essential is from the plant family Lamiaceae and is a flowering shrub known as a rosebush. Rose oil is a powerful rich sweet smell. It is used commonly in perfumery. This essential oil is used as an antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, and astringent agent; for calming the nervous system and reducing anxiety; as a sedative; as a sexual, general, and uterine tonic; and for wound healing.
- 8.Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata)—this essential oil is from the plant family Annonaceae, or custard apple family. This tropical flower is a yellow-shaped flower that grows on the cananga tree. Oil from ylang-ylang is used in cologne, lotion, food flavoring, and soap. This essential oil elevates the mood. Ylang-ylang essential oil is used as an antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac; for calming the nervous system and lowering blood pressure; and as a sexual tonic.15
Rinds and Fruits
- 1.Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is from the plant family Rutaceae. This yellow or green fruit is a hybrid of lemon and bitter orange and has a bitter taste that is more than grapefruit but less than a lemon. The essential oil from the peel or zest of the fruit can cause photosensitivity, with sun exposure causing damage to sun-exposed skin. The essential oil has a citrus fruit smell, with uses in oil perfumes, cosmetics, and scenting food. This essential oil is used as an air purifier, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral; for calming; as a deodorant; for digestive regulating (undereating or overeating); for reducing anxiety; as a sedative and tonic; and for wound healing.
- 2.Lemon (citrus limonum)—this essential oil is fruit from a small evergreen tree. This oil is from the Rutaceae plant family, with the peel of the fruit and pulp used in culinary and noncultural from lemon essential oil, lemon pie for culinary to cleaning products. The distinct sour taste of lemon is a popular essential oil. The essential oil from lemon is used as an antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antiviral, astringent, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent; as a digestive stimulant, immunity booster, and lymphatic; and for reducing anxiety.
- 3.Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) —this essential oil is from the Rutaceae plant family. This small citrus tree grows mandarin oranges that are smaller than oranges. A hybrid of the mandarin orange is the tangerine. The mandarin essential oil from peel and rind is sweeter and can be dried for seasoning and used in various food. This essential oil is used as an analgesic, antidepressant, antiseptic, central nervous system tonic, deodorant, digestive tonic, and immunity booster; for reducing reduces anxiety and fevers; and as a sedative.
- 4.Sweet orange (citrus sinensis)—this essential oil is from the plant family Rutaceae. This sweet citrusy greenish orange fruit oil is from the peel and zest. This oil is used in top perfumes. The leaves are photosensitive but not the fruit. The sweet orange essential oil is used as an analgesic, antidepressant, antibacterial antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, deodorant, and digestive tonic; for reducing anxiety; as a sedative; for soothing the nervous system; and as a stimulant.
- 5.Juniper berry (Juniperus communis)—this purple-black berry is a female evergreen cone. This essential oil is from the plant family Cupressaceae, derived from conifers, and often is used as a spice. The essential oil is used as an analgesic, antiseptic, antiseborrheic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, decongestant, and detoxifier and for increasing circulation and reducing fever.16
Woods and Resins
- 1.Cedarwood (Cedrus atlanticia)—cedarwood is from the plant family Pinaceae and the needles, leaves, bark, and wood are for extracting the essential oil. The evergreen conifers have a soothing woodsy scent. The essential oil is used as an antifungal, antiseptic, and astringent; for breaking up mucus; and as a calmative, insect repellent, lymphatic decongestant, and general tonic.
- 2.Frankincense (Boswellia carteri)—this essential oil is in the plant family of Burseraceae and is from a Boswellia tree. Resin that is a hardened gumlike material is used in aromatic incense and perfumes. The essential oil is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, and astringent agent; for immunity tonic; for reducing anxiety; as a sedative; and for soothing the nervous system and wound healing.
- 3.Sandalwood (Santalum album)—this essential oil is from the plant family Santalaceae. The oil is extracted from wood, heartwood of the trunk, and sawdust. The essential oil from sandalwood is used in medications, skin beauty treatment, incense sticks, perfumes, mouthwashes, deodorants, and antiseptics. As an essential oil, it is used as an antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, aphrodisiac, and sedative; for soothing the soothes nervous system; and as a general tonic.17
Roots and Rhizomes
- 1.Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is distilled from the rhizome or underground stem of a root of the herb zingiber. Ginger also is known as the oil of empowerment for the feeling of confidence. Ginger root oil is a frequently used spice. In addition, this dried and ugly root is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, digestive support, immunity harmonizer, and rubefacient.
- 2.Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides) is derived from the aromatic roots and also called khus oil. It is derived from the vetiver plant that is a clumpy, green grass that can grow 5 feet or more. This essential oil is used as an antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, digestive stimulant, immunity booster, and sedative, and for skin support and soothing the nervous system.18
- 1.Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an essential oil that comes from the leaves and stalk of the lemongrass plant. This grassy plant is used in cooking and herbal tea. The oil from the grass has a lemony powerful scent and is bright or pale yellow. This essential oil is used as an analgesic, antidepressant, antiviral, immunity booster, and general tonic.
- 2.Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia) is an essential oil that comes from a tall herbaceous grass and can be called Indian geranium or rose oil. The oil has a sweet citrus lemony scent that has a yellow color.19
Administration of essential oils
- 1.Topical application with skin absorption of the essential oil. Examples include massage, scented bath, cosmetics, and perfumes.
- 2.Absorption of the essential oil by inhaling in nostrils. Examples include direct inhalation via diffuser with steam, aroma stones, and oil-scented strip of cloth. Indirect absorption examples include scented room spray and heated candle wax, detergent, and bathroom and floor cleaners.
- 3.Oral absorption of the essential oil. Examples include gelatin capsules and safe dose of essential oil diluted.
- 4.Internal absorption of essential oil. Examples include scented mouthwash and scented suppository or vagina douche. Essential oil used for flavor in prescription medications and herbal medicines.20,21,22International Federation of Aromatherapists What is Aromatherapy.
Pathophysiologic response to health care aromatherapy
- •The olfactory stimulation by aromatherapy travels via nostrils to the olfactory bulb.
- •The stimulus then travels to the brain for processing, where the amygdala triggers an emotional response and the hippocampus retrieves and/or forms memories.
- •The limbic system interacts with the cerebral cortex, activating thoughts and feelings.
- •The inhaled aromatherapy molecules travel to the upper respiratory tract and then to the lower respiratory tract.
- •Molecules than travel to the pulmonary blood vessels to the blood stream then to organs and tissues.20,21
- •In summary, the inhaled aromatherapy molecules affect mind, body, and spirit.
- •The molecules travel to the upper respiratory track and then the lower respiratory tract.
- •Molecules then travel to the pulmonary blood vessels, to the blood stream, and then to organs and tissues.20,21
- •The skin pathway can activate olfactory stimulation and also activates application of scented oil to the skin pathway triggering a mental and physiological response.
- •The skin pathway absorption of essential oils can reduce a patient’s perceived stress, enhance healing, and increase communication.20
Safe use of essential oils
Combustion Reaction Safety
Elder and Child Safety
Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Primary Contact Dermatitis
Essential Oil Phototoxicity
Aromatherapy clinical management
- •Allergy—inhalant, skin, food, and medication allergy or sensitivity. Consider the need for a patch test.
- •Chronic conditions—assess condition that could be impacted by aromatherapy, such as plant source triggering asthma attack or cancer that is fed by estrogen, with a few essential oils having estrogenic activity.
- •Obtain vital signs—assess if there is a problem proceeding with essential oil administration.
- •Symptoms needing to be managed—such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, nausea, and pain
- •Educate the patient about the essential oil, procedure, safety, symptom management, patient-centered selection of the essential oil, and consent for implementation.
- •Outcome measurement of symptom relief—select a tool for measuring the symptom, such as pain. The pain tool could be measurement of pain from 1 to 10 or visual picture rating of pain; or, a nonverbal patient’s pain could be measured with a visual picture range, and pain in a patient unable to communicate could be measured with physiologic changes, such as vital signs, guarding of the area, and facial grimaces from discomfort. After selection of the pain measurement tool, rate the presymptom range, and post-implementation, measure at end of post symptom score for a change in outcome findings.
- •Evaluate the effectiveness of the essential oil on the symptom. The outcome goals are decrease in the symptom and increased well-being and quality of life. Patient-centered symptom management and presence of a nurse could increase patient satisfaction.
- •Document the procedure and incorporate into the plan of care.
- •Examples of clinical conditions and settings that can benefit in the management of symptoms in the inpatient and outpatient settings are pain, nausea and vomiting, preoperative anxiety, critical care, general well-being, anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia, respiratory, dementia, oncology, palliative care, hospice, and end of life.1,6,PDQ Integrative, Alternatives, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board. Aromatherapy with Essential Oils (PDQ)-Health Professional Version. Beethesda,MD: National Cancer Institute.7,24
Best practice model for clinical symptom management
- 1.Buy-in from major stakeholders. Develop a committee that includes interprofessional members. Input from all stakeholders, including frontline nurses, needs to be embraced; and, commit, by a recorded vote, to proceeding with the aromatherapy program.
- 2.Develop a policy and procedure manual. Search the literature for best practice aromatherapy models. If possible, contact the facility for assistance with the startup of the program. For example, a best practice model is at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix Arizona. This research and education facility uses aromatherapy for alternative medicine and has integrative medicine.
- 3.Upon approval, establish guidelines for safe and effective implementation, including infection control, safe storage, and disposal of the chemical oil.
- 4.Identify common symptoms that could occur in the facility, such as pain, anxiety, depression, nausea, and insomnia.
- 5.Identify nursing considerations, such as assessment, chronic illness, administration, and safety.
- 6.Identify preoutcome and postoutcome measurements and best tools for measurement. For example, anxiety is a symptom: identify a pretest and post-test to measure anxiety that is a short tool.
- 7.Identify and educate aromatherapy champions to lead the new program by supervising and mentoring nurses, for example, a classroom course for hospital nurses and a certified clinical aromatherapy practitioner course.
- 8.Evaluate the data from the pre-intervention and post-intervention of aromatherapy. Interpret the findings and refine if needed.
- 9.Data analysis to justify aromatherapy is an effective intervention for symptom management.
- 10. Seek a provider standing order for aromatherapy for sustainability.1,24
- Essential Oils in Hospitals: The Ethics, Safety, Cost and Application of Clinical Aromatherapy.(Available at:)Accessed March 30, 2020)
- Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils against human pathogens and their mode of action: an updated review. evidence based complementary and alternative medicine.(Available at:)Accessed July 30, 2019)
- Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s in a Name? NCCIH Pub NO.: D347.(Available at:)Accessed April 4, 2020)
- Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception.Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2016; 50: 127-133
- Alliance of International Aromatherapists. AIA Journal. Aromatherapy.(Available at:)Accessed March 30, 2020)
- PDQ Integrative, Alternatives, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board. Aromatherapy with Essential Oils (PDQ)-Health Professional Version. Beethesda,MD: National Cancer Institute.(Available at:)Accessed March 30, 2020)
- Aromatherapy H.L. Lindquest R. Tracy M.R. Complementary and alternative therapies in nursing. 8th edition. Springer Publishing Company, New York2018: 319-338
- Evolution of aromatherapy.in: Buckle J. Clinical aromatherapy essential oils in healthcare. 3rd edition. Elsevier, St Louis (MO)2015: 2-14
National Association of Holistic Aromatherapists. What is Aroma Therapy? Available at: https://www.aromaweb.com/articles/wharoma.asp. Accessed March 30, 2020.
- Aromatherapy.(Available at:)Accessed March 30, 2020)
- Consumer Product Safety Commission. Regulations, Laws & Standards.(Available at:)Accessed April 20,2020)
- Quinessence Aromatherapy LTD.(Available at:)Accessed March 30,2020)
- Chapter 8. Seeds.in: Nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being. The Country Man Press, New York2018: 119-128
- Chapter 9. Stems, leaves, & needles in nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being.The Country Man Press, New York2018: 129-150
- Chapter 10. Petals & flowers.in: Nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being. The Country Man Press, New York2018: 151-176
- Chapter 11. Rinds & fruits in nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being.The Country Man Press, New York2018: 177-194
- Chapter 12. Woods & resins.in: Nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being. The Country Man Press, New York2018: 195-206
- Chapter 13. Roots & rhizomes.in: Nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being. The Country Man Press, New York2018: 207-212
- Chapter 14. Grass.in: Nature’s essential oils: aromatic alchemy for well-being. The Country Man Press, New York2018: 213-218
- Exploring Aromatherapy.(Available at:)Accessed March 30, 2020)
- How essentials work.in: Buckle J. Clinical aromatherapy essential oils in healthcare. 3rd edition. Elsevier, St Louis (MO)2015: 15-36
- International Federation of Aromatherapists What is Aromatherapy.(Available at:)Accessed March 30, 2020)
- Toxicity & contraindications.in: Buckle J. Clinical aromatherapy essential oils in healthcare. 3rd edition. Elsevier, St Louis (MO)2015: 73-94
- Aromatherapy in integrative healthcare.in: Buckle J. Clinical aromatherapy essential oils in healthcare. 3rd edition. Elsevier, St Louis (MO)2015: 95-116